Isabel Rangel Barón: Landscapes of childhood tumours

Landscapes of childhood tumours

Landscapes of childhood tumours, Published online: 28 February 2018; doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01648-4

Two analyses of the genetic alterations that characterize paediatric cancers reveal key differences from adult cancers, and point to ways of optimizing therapeutic approaches to combating cancer in children.

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Isabel Rangel Barón: Erratum: Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos

Erratum: Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos

Erratum: Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos, Published online: 28 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nature25995

Erratum: Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos

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Isabel Rangel Barón: A surprising chill before the cosmic dawn

A surprising chill before the cosmic dawn

A surprising chill before the cosmic dawn, Published online: 28 February 2018; doi:10.1038/d41586-018-02310-9

An experiment to estimate when stars began to form in the Universe suggests that gas temperatures just before stars appeared had fallen well below predicted limits, and that dark matter is not as shadowy as was thought.

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Isabel Rangel Barón: Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars

Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars

Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars, Published online: 28 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nature25791

As the first stars heated hydrogen in the early Universe, the 21-cm hyperfine line—an astronomical standard that represents the spin-flip transition in the ground state of atomic hydrogen—was altered, causing the hydrogen gas to absorb photons from the microwave background. This should produce an observable absorption signal at frequencies of less than 200 megahertz (MHz). Judd Bowman and colleagues report the observation of an absorption profile centred at a frequency of 78 MHz that is about 19 MHz wide and 0.5 kelvin deep. The profile is generally in line with expectations, although it is deeper than predicted. An accompanying paper by Rennan Barkana suggests that baryons were interacting with cold dark-matter particles in the early Universe, cooling the gas more than had been expected.

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Isabel Rangel Barón: Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source

Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source

Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous <sup>142</sup>Nd/<sup>144</sup>Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source, Published online: 28 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nature25754

Certain volcanic hotspots are thought to sample sections of Earth’s deep interior that were formed more than two billion years ago, with some having witnessed differentiation events—the separation of planetary materials into chemically distinct regions, such as the core and mantle—that occurred within the first 50 million years of Earth’s history. Bradley Peters and colleagues report neodymium isotopic data from Réunion Island volcanic rocks. The data correlate with helium isotopic data, suggesting parallel behaviour of the isotopic systems during silicate differentiation, perhaps as early as 4.39 billion years ago. They conclude that Réunion magmas tap an unusually ancient, primitive source compared to other volcanic hotspots, which could offer a window into the formation and preservation of ancient heterogeneities in Earth’s interior.

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